Why Now?


Critical data provided by satellites may be vulnerable to cyber attacks. How can we improve the security of future satellite communications?


Today satellite bandwidth is limited by availability of ground based stations and depleting radio spectrum. We need to find new ways to increase bandwidth and make it more scalable.


Today our highly dynamic society needs up to date information to be provided immediately. Its either now or too late.


We suggest a new satellite data relay infrastructure in Low Earth orbit using a combination of radio and optical communications to vastly increase the bandwidth, responsiveness and security of next generation space based data networks. The backbone of Space Union network would consist of 32 gateway satellites flying around 700 km altitude and distributed in 4 polar orbits. Gateway satellites would use high speed laser terminals to pass the data between each other and a combination or radio and optical communication for ground station links. Instead of the need to directly communicate with specific ground station for limited pass duration, customer satellites in Low Earth Orbit would be able to relay their data to the nearest available ground station via satellites operated by Space Union at any time.

How would it work:

  • The Space Union network would be distributed over the Low Earth Orbit into “cells”, where each cell is served by at least one gateway satellite. Think of it as a mobile cellular network in space with gateway satellites serving as base stations.
  • Each gateway satellite provides the cell with constant network coverage which can be used for transmission of telemetry, telecommands of any other type of data.
  • Client satellites inside a cell establish connection to the gateway satellite via Ka band inter-satellite radio links.
  • The data is then relayed across the network via high speed optical laser links to the nearest available ground station or another client satellite.
  • Gateway satellites use either a laser terminal, a radio transmitter or a combination of both to downlink the data to ground stations.


bandwidth scalability

Our cellular network topology would allow radio frequency to be re-used many times while optical communication has orders of magnitude higher bandwidth than the whole current radio spectrum and is not regulated.


The constellation is distributed in such a way that at least 2 gateway satellites would be accessible at any instant of time. Since each satellite orbit is crossing the poles, ground stations placed in polar regions would enable full time 24/7 access to the network.


Due to a very narrow signal beamwidth, optical communication is known to be highly resistant to jamming, interference and eavesdropping. Furthermore, de-centralized network architecture ensures that even if one of the gateway satellites is undermined the network would still be fully functional.